Comrade Tsedenbal Addresses the Romanian Council of Ministers in 1957, Part 1 (my translation from the Romanian)

A digital copy of this document, in Romanian, is found at the Wilson Center Digital Archive.

(“Memorandum of Conversation between the Government of Romania and the Delegation of Popular Republic of Mongolia, 9 September 1957 (Fragment),” September 09, 1957, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, CC RCP Chancellary, 109/1957, pp. 2-10 http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112159)

As the text is of interest for the study of Mongolian history as well as relations between Mongolia and Romania and of COMECON more broadly, I translate the text here into English with the hope it may reach a wider audience.

I found the downplaying of Soviet military aid in the 1920s as well as during the 1940s, and the leaving open of the possibility that the United States and Japan did not decline to aid Mongolia but perhaps never received letters requesting such aid, of note, but also not unsurprising in the context of a diplomatic visit to an Eastern European ally. The detailed heroic story of how the letter to the Soviet government was smuggled out of Mongolia in the “wooden part of a whip” under the “conditions of a terrorist regime” is also interesting in considering how the Mongolian People’s Party and Communist Party of Romania narrated their origins.

The second part of the address (translation forthcoming in second post) concerns developments after World War Two. This includes a discussion of the fate of the monasteries, wolfram mining, the mechanization of agriculture and intensification of agricultural production, and particular planned projects with the Soviet Union. GDR, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the training of students in socialist countries including Romania beginning in 1957, the problem of the purges and cults of personality, and concerns about Yugoslavia and Tito.

Convorbirile care au avut loc la Consiliul de Miniștri între delegația Republicii Populare Mongole și guvernul Republicii Populare Romîne

Tov. Tedenbal: [sic]

In aceste condiții cercurile s-au unit, au organizat atunci un partid popular și apoi în condițiile unui regim terorist au trecut în mod secret in Uniunea Sovietică pentru a cere ajutor. Era pe atunci centrul Republicii din Extremul Orient.

Tovarășii au răspuns să se adreseze Republicii Socialiste Ruse. Au plecat la Ircuțc unde se găsea Secretariatul și apoi au trimis la Moscova pe unii dintre tovarăși. Acolo la Moscova o parte dintre delegație a fost primită de Lenin și li [sic] s-a promis ajutor.

Dar, în acelaș timp, acest conducător al statului a cerut ajutor și Americii și Japoniei. Aceste scrisori însă nu au ajuns la destinație.

Revoluționarii au reușit să facă o scrisoare Uniunii Sovietice. Au pus scrisoarea în partea de lemn a biciului* și așa au putut trece. Apoi s-au înapoiat într-un oraș de lîngă graniță, unii tovarăși au mers chiar în interior, dar mereu se îmbrăcau altfel, ca preot, ca negustor și astfel circulau prin țara.

Pe lîngă graniță au fost organizate detagamente de partizani. A inceput apoi acțiunea dintre orașele de lîngă graniță dar a fost înfrîntă. Prima data s-a pregătit ofensiva în interiorul țării. Acolo s-au dat lupte și acest conducător a fost infrint. El a fugit în Mongolia de Nord unde a fost prins și predat Uniunii Sovietice.

In luna iulie s-a creat un guvern provisoriu, a fost ocupată capitala și s-a creat un guvern revoluționar.

Guvernul revoluționar a creat un tratat cu Monarhul. El a fost păstrat ca, cap al statului, pentru că a avut o mare influență mai ales pe linie religioasă. Această monarhie a existat pîna in 1946(sic) cînd a murit.

In august 1924 a avut loc al III-lea Congres al Partidului. Atunci a fost adoptată linia de dezvoltare a partidului.

In toama anului 1921 cînd delegația noastră a fost la Lenin, Lenin a arătat această cale de dezvoltare a Mongoliei. In partid a fost atunci o mare luptă în legătură [?] această [?]

[pg. 2]

Deși Congresul al III-lea adoptat un program, în conducere fiind membri de
dreapta ei au făcut o deviere puternică, au început să încurajeze pe feudali.

Comandatul armatei care a fost și secretar general era totodată și acționarul unei mari ferme din China. El a fost demascat. După demascarealui tot dreptiștii au rămas în frunte. El spunea că marxismul și lamaismul este acelaș lucru. In timpul acesta nu a fost nici o ofensivă împotriva feudalilor. Ei duceau o politică de ridicare a legăturilor cu Uniunea Sovietică.

Oamenii care constituiau cadrele de conducere trimiteau copii lor să studieze în Franța, Germania etc.

In 1928 a fost al VII-lea Congres al Partidului în cadrul căruia acești dușmani au fost demascați. 45 de zile a durat Congresul. A fost aleasă o nouă conducere. In această nouă conducere au fost și cîțiva dintre acei care au simțit că conducerea de dreapta va fi demascată și au luat poziție ca și cum ei sînt aceia care a demascat pe aceștia pentru ca să se mențină în conducere. Atunci a apărut în partid o deviere de stînga.

După exemplul Uniunii Sovietice a început să fie creat în mod administrativ comune. Tot asă ca mijloc administrativ a început ofensiva împotriva sentimentelor religioase. De acest lucru s-au folosit imperialiștii japonesi și feudali. In 1932 au ridicat o mare răscoală înt-o serie de regiuni. Tot în acelaș an, 1932 cu ajutorul Partidului Comunist problema aceasta a fost rezolvată.

Din anul 1920 – 1930 au fost cîteva răscoale conduse de preoți.

Mulți au plecat în China. Cînd a fost publicată amnistia mulți s-au întors, iar o parte au rămas acolo. Pe urmă a început așa numita noua linie a partidului.

In timpul acesta a fost ocupată de către japonezi și continua ocuparea de către ei. Japonezii au formulat cerințe mari față de ei. Au fost cîteva accidente mai mari în 1935 – 1936.

In acest condiții a fost încheiat cu Uniunea Sovietică un pact de asistența mutuală.

Imperialiștii japonezi au început să trimită spioni în Mongolia care au reușit să se strecoare chiar în aparatul economic. In 1939 a început acțiunea directă împotriva Mongoliei. Atunci ne-am gîndit la un ajutor din partea Uniunii Sovietice. După 4 luni de luptă a fost zdrobită armata 6 […]

Conversations that took place at the Council of Minsters between the delegations of the People’s Republic of Mongolia and the government of the People’s Republic of Romania

Comrade Tsedenbal:

In these conditions circles united, then was organized a popular party that thus in the conditions of a terrorist regime negotiated secretly in the Soviet Union for aid. This was then the center of the Republic of the Far East.

The comrades responded that they address themselves to the Russian Socialist Republic. They left for Irkutsk where they found the Secretariat and then were sent to Moscow to unite with comrades. There in Moscow a part of the delegation was received by Lenin and he promised to help.

Thus, at the same time, this leader of the state asked for help from both American and Japan. But these letters never arrived at their destinations.

The revolutionaries succeeded in making a letter to the Soviet Union. This letter was put in the wood part of a (riding?) whip* and so it passed. Then going back one of the comrades went into the interior, but dressed differently, as a monk (lit. priest), as a merchant who was circulating around the country.

Along the border there was organized a detachment of partisans. Then began action among the countries along the border but it had lessened(?). At first offense was prepared in the interior of the country. There battle was given and this leader fell. He fled to Northern Mongolia where he was captured and delivered to the Soviet Union.

In the month of July a provisional government was created, the capital was occupied, and a revolutionary government created.

The revolutionary government created a treaty with the Monarch. He remained as head of the state for which he had a large influence especially in the religious line. This monarchy existed until 1946[sic] when he died.

In August 1924 the Third Congress of the Party took place. Then the line of development of the Party was adopted.

In autumn 1921 when our delegation was with Lenin, Lenin showed** this path of development for Mongolia. In the party there was then a great struggle in connection [final few words of text cut off at bottom of page]

[pg. 2]

But at this Third Congress was adopted a program led by some members of the right who made a deviation of power, and began to support feudalists.

The commander of the army who was also the secretary general was concomitantly also the shareholder of a large firm from China. He was unmasked. After his unmasking all the rightists stayed on the front. He said that Marxism and Lamaism were of the same ilk. In this time there was not any offense against feudalists. They lead a policy of (improving or overturning?) relations with the Soviet Union.

The people who constituted the cadres of governance sent their children to study in France, Germany, etc.

In 1928 was the Seventh Congress of the Party in the cadre of which these enemies were unmasked. This Congress lasted forty-five days. New leadership was elected. In this new leadership were also some among these that it was felt were part of the right and the position was taken that they must be unmasked in this way for the maintenance of leadership (?). Then there appeared in the party a deviation to the left.

After the example of the Soviet Union there began to be created a mode of collective administration. So in the middle administration began an offensive against religious sentiments. Use of this was made by Japanese imperialists and feudalists. In 1932 arose a large revolt in a series of regions. Also in this same year, 1932, with help from the Communist Party this problem was resolved.

From the year 1920 to 1930 there were some revolts led by monks (lit. “priests”).

Many left for China. When an amnesty to return was announced, a part remained there. After this began what was named a new line of the Party.

In this time there had been occupation by the Japanese and occupation by them continued. The Japanese formulated increasing demands of them. There were some larger accidents(?) in 1935 and 1936.

In these conditions a pact of mutual assistance was secured with the Soviet Union.

Japanese imperialists began to send spies to Mongolia who succeeded in infiltrating the economic apparatus. In 1939 began direct action against Mongolia. Then we thought about help from the part of the Soviet Union.** After four months of fighting the Sixth Army crushed [words clipped off at end of page]

* A native Romanian speaker asked to assist with this phrase was reminded of a story of how silk worms were smuggled from China by Byzantines.

** Thank you to Andrei Marin for corrections here to the original version, which mistakenly had “Lenin ploughed” and “we did not think of”

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s